Let's make this useful distinction :
1) using on as a substitute for first plural person (nous)
Dépêche-toi, on va être en retard !
This is constantly used in oral casual contexts, but is clearly off-limits in a master degree! If you have to use nous as a polite way to say I in your thesis, like in your example (Dans ce chapitre, nous allons voir...), go for it and don't use on there. The possiblity to use first person in your work is, I guess, another subject.
2) using on to designate an undefined subject
On a sonné à la porte.
This is not only possible, it's the only way in some domains, like mathematics, as fkraiem pointed out in an earlier comment, but not only science. To give another example out of science, in philosophy there will be many times for the use of on (Peut-on rire de tout ? Doit-on craindre la mort ?).