In English, we can use k and m to denote thousand and million: I drove 5k miles. What are the equivalents to k and m in French? If there are not any such equivalents, is there some kind of shortened version?
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Such abbreviations are hardly ever used in French.
Currencies are a bit different. In formal writing, they are fully spelled out, e.g. “150 millions de dollars” for “$30m”. In business contexts, it's common to use the prefixes
I've never heard M pronounced, and I've never seen G used for billions in such contexts (it seems to be used occasionally in Canada). This may be because I don't normally manipulate such large amounts, but then few people do. Even k wouldn't be understood by everyone, it has a megacorp/finance feel to it.
Those letters are actually the metric prefixes, also known as Système International prefixes, so they have the same meaning in every languages as unit prefixes, as in km for kilometers.
As in English, they can be used as shortcuts for the powers of ten, although this use is not as common as it is in English. In my experience, they are especially used when speaking of money amounts, and especially of remuneration, and M is less common than k
I don't know about others abbreviations of this type.