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This covers a few sub-questions that I'm trying to understand. In each case, either one might be incorrect, or there might be a difference in register, or some other subtlety.

Je parle un peu de français” or “je parle un peu français”?

Je sais parler le français” or “je sais parler français”? Or even “je sais (le?) français”? (Although that seems wrong, but you never know if it might be idiomatic.)

Je ne suis pas coulant” or “je ne le parle pas couramment”?

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  • "Je parle un peu de français" and "je parle un peu français" are both correct but I'd more easily say "je parle un peu le français". I perceive a slight difference of meaning, but nothing I can explicit and probably nothing worth mentioning except that there are probably contexts where each one would be more natural. Note that "je parle un peu français puis reviens à l'anglais" could also be used when you say a few words in French before continuing in a language you are more comfortable with.

  • "Je sais parler le français", "je sais parler français" and "je sais le français" all sound correct to me (but I'm Belgian and our usage of savoir is sometimes not standard), the latter somewhat old fashioned.

  • "Je ne suis pas coulant" would mean "I'm not lenient" in a familiar way (clément, indulgent could be used without being familiar).

  • "je ne le parle pas couramment" is correct

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I would indeed favor “Je connais le français”. And I have one foot both outre-Quiévrain and outre-Quiévrechain (although my French would more likely be considered, well, french). –  Édouard Aug 4 '13 at 23:10
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Ne pas employer "je ne suis pas coulant" en France : c'est un anglicisme qui ne sera pas forcément compris par les non anglophones ; coulant voulant dire relaxe, zen, pas ou peu sévère en langage familier.

Dire "je parle un peu français" mais (ou) "je ne le parle pas couramment" est une façon usuelle de s'exprimer qui sera parfaitement comprise.

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