To my understanding, both words translate to "fille." Are there any context independent translations?
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As always the context is important. But you can't misunderstand the word fille in French, because there will always be an indication to help you know which meaning it has. If there is a possessive pronoun in front of it (or an equivalent) the meaning will be daughter.
If there is only a simple or no determinant in front of the word (or a demonstrative, etc...), the meaning will be girl.
So even if both words girl and daughter have the same translation in French, you can easily know which meaning they have. The whole context is important, but sometimes if you just focus on the groupe nominal you can know if it means daughter or girl.