I did not answer because the question was specifically asking about France, but I'll complement Laure's answer (I'm Québécois).
From my observation, when we use that word is more in its fuck form than its fucking form. We tend to have a lot of swear words to chose from (in french, mostly church/religion related words, and others often borrowed from France), and generally when we chose fuck, it is generally because we really mean it, it tends to be a strong word. The verb form is a bit less strong IMHO and much less used, as we have the ability to 'conjugate' our swears, or transform them into adverbs and nouns.
I'm telling this as an adult. Now, how do teenagers use this? As Laure mentioned in her answer, TV/movies are 'good' teachers for this kind of stuff so there's no way to not be exposed, but as kids grow, they learn to swear (well, those that keep on going to school, as we have an expression Sacrer comme un gars de chantier which implies that some jobs were there is not a lot of education is required tend to have a "dirtier" vocabulary).
I must admit that the use of fuck is sometime viewed as a 'casual' swear. Which means that a teenager using this word while waiting in line at the convenient store will not get big frowns from other in Québec, as opposed to what he'll get saying the same thing in Ontario.
I can't remember the movie, but in that movie, something bad happened (it does not matter what), and the woman said fuck in the original English version. In the french translation, the word was translated by fuck.
So, yes, we use fuck and fucking, no matter the education/age, but it is not generally our favourite way to swear.
I forgot to mention: We tend to use the word shit once in a while. And also crap. Both of these are weaker than what you're asking, however. And we also tend to use them less than french swear words.