I have found on English Language Learners a French phrase: “Mesures pendant et après forage”.
It puzzles me for I don’t know whether French allows to conjoin different (opposite) meanings.
I’d rather use the disjunctive conjunction “or”.
You can consider this as a shortcut for the whole (quite redundant) expression :
But, granted, each single measurement is made during OR after the drilling, and that's an exclusive one.
Like saying un champ de fleurs bleues et blanches, which of course doesn't imply two-colored flowers.
It means measurements made both during and after the drilling. If you replace et by ou it would have meant measurement made either during or after the drilling.