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"Les comtes du jour et de la nuit" by Guy de Maupassant are also quite simple. P.S. As for me, to listen to French songs and to look at their lyrics afterward seems useful.
This looks like the kind of thing you are looking for: Claude Gruaz (2008). Dictionnaire synchronique des familles dérivationnelles de mots français, Editions Lambert-Lucas.
Older material; nevertheless, these might provide some insight and are presented more or less in the format you alluded to: Dictionnaire des racines et derivés de la langue française, dans lequel on trouve tous les mots distribués par famille d'après la similitude de consonnance et de signification, et chaque famille rangée dans l'ordre abécédaire ...
There's the famous Dictionnaire historique de la langue française by Alain Rey. An excellent reference, very useful, and it's quite exactly what you seem to search for. It could be an expensive book (2 volumes in fact), but I guess it could also be found in some french (public or not) libraries.
I do not know the special book that fulfils your need. But The majority of French words derive from Vulgar Latin or were constructed from Latin or Greek roots. In many cases a single etymological root appears in French in a "popular" or native form, inherited from Vulgar Latin, and a learned form, borrowed later from Classical Latin. (Wikipedia) ...
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