I would like to know if there is any French equivalent expression that means the same as "throughout the world". Google Translate says it is "travers le monde", which sounds correct in the literal sense but doesn't seem right. Please let me know if there is any other way to say the same.
I would rather suggest "dans le monde entier", even though "à travers le monde" is the correct literal translation.
There is an older and more refined expression, de par le monde.
It's not usable in all contexts, but if you intend to say "They travelled throughout the world", then a good translation (for a higher language register) is "Elles ont voyagé de par le monde" (although "à travers le monde", "dans le monde entier", "partout dans le monde") are also OK.
"À travers le monde" is correct only when you imply a search action:
"Il a cherché sa femme partout à travers le monde" --> He searched for his wife all over the world