There's a certain type of interrogative phrasing I often stumble over, which I have always called complex inversion but which I am not sure of the real name for. I don't know why I thought it was called that. Here are examples:
Le chien a-t-il mangé aujourd'hui?
Où votre père travaille-t-il?
Comment Madame Thatcher est-elle devenue premier ministre?
These are examples of questions that use inversion with a redundant subject pronoun, which is what I'm talking about, and I always have some trouble knowing when to use this.
Is this type of phrasing somewhat formal? Is there a more natural way to phrase these questions without using inversion? Would using est-ce que seem more familliar / natural, or is it about the same? I seem to see this phrasing more often.