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The adjective dernier can be placed in front or after a noun it modifies, but gives different meanings in the two cases:

J'ai eu un accident la semaine dernière.

C'est la dernière semaine de l'année !

What if there is a number that modifies dernier? Is it always placed in front of the noun?

(1) J'étais très occupé les deux dernières semaines.

(2) Cet événement aura lieu pendant les deux dernières semaines de l'année !

Is it the same with prochain, suivant, and premier?

(3) Je serai très occupé les deux prochaines semaines.

(4) J'ai eu un bon moment aux vacances. Mais les deux suivantes semaines, j'étais très occupé.

(5) Cet événement aura lieu pendant les deux premières semaines de l'année !

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(1), (2), (3) and (5) are perfectly correct. For the (4), it would rather be "les deux semaines suivantes"

Now, if I had to give you a "rule" and not just answer because "it sound better like that", it would more difficult...

EDIT:

I just found this link, which seems quite acurate to me, but not perfectly written, let me know if you need help to understand

http://activitesfle.over-blog.com/2015/04/prochain-dernier-place-de-l-adjectif-et-changement-de-sens.html

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To put it as simple as I can, "dernier" is exactly the same as "last".

I had an accident last week.
It is the last week of the year.

You can usually change the order too, but it might sometimes not sound right.

The (last 2 / 2 last) weeks have been hard.
Ces (2 dernières / dernières 2) semaines ont ete difficiles

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