I’d like to find out about when to use each one.
Je projette d’acheter de nouveaux habits.
Je projette d’acheter de nouveaux vêtements.
Je projette d’acheter de nouvelles tenues.
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"Habits" and "vêtements" have the exact same meaning to me. I'd say that "vêtements" sounds maybe a bit more formal than "habits" but both are used fairly commonly.
"Tenue" on the other hand has a slightly different meaning : it is used to refer to an ensemble. A "tenue" is the sum of the "vêtements" that you are wearing (trousers and a shirt is a "tenue" or a skirt, tights and a blouse...). It is mostly used to refer to the set of clothes for a specific event.
"J'ai trouvé une tenue pour la soirée."