I was curious about resources (in particular free internet resources) that other people use on this site to research their answers to French usage/grammar questions. I am primarily interested in reputable references beyond what a basic Google search could yield.
I found these (several are overlapping in scope):
- Dictionnaire Littré
- Dictionnaire Linguee
- Dictionnaire de l'Académie and Académie française
- French language links from Oxford University
- ARTFL at University of Chicago
- Office québécois de la langue française
- Outils et ressources linguistiques du gouvernement du Canada
- Dictionnaire de la Zone
- Langue française (and its forum)
- Occitan and Etymologie occitane
- Les expressions du monde francophone
For frequency of usage of words, expressions in books:
This one is the "ultimate" for usage, but it is not free. There is an online version too:
This is one that all students in France know about, mostly for conjugations, but it now covers orthography and grammar too:
This one is a free resource geared towards learning French, containing exercises, dictionaries, conjugation tools and more:
A list of words that can be used for computer processing:
A "lexique" with some statistical data:
Scanned dictionaries, including old ones:
40 online searchable dictionaries including 18 Old French dictionaries.
Gallica The digital library for online users of the Bibliothèque nationale de France and its partners. To this days it has more than 6 million digitized materials of various types: books, magazines, newspapers, photographs, cartoons, drawings, prints, posters, maps, manuscripts, antique coins, scores, theater costumes and sets, audio and video materials. All library materials are freely available.
La Grande Grammaire du Français
Published in 2021. Includes data from contemporary written French, but also data from spoken corpora and regional or non standard French. Throughout the grammar, a simple phrase structure grammar is used, in order to maintain a common representation.
Print and online subscription (many institutions will have subscribed)
What other similar resources exist out there? In particular, I am interested in resources/data about the frequency of usage of words, expressions, etc. in France.