Note that Star is not from French/Latin but is has anglo-saxon roots (see German Stern.)
For most of the remaining words1, the reason is not that much é became s in English, but that Old French (and late Vulgar Latin in the western part of the Roman Empire) added a leading i → e in front of words starting with an s + consonant (s impurum = impure/imperfect "s"). This is called Prothesis.
This phenomenon is more significant in Spanish where almost no word starts with s + consonant: e.g. FR spécial ←→ ES especial, squelette ←→ esqueleto, stade ←→ estadio, style ←→ estilo, standard ←→ estándar, statue ←→ estatua, station ←→ estación, …
Either this leading e was dropped when the French word was adopted by the English or maybe the word was already borrowed directly or indirectly from Latin so without the e in the first place as English like all Germanic languages has no problem with words starting with st-, sk-, sp-, and the likes.
In the meantime, many words starting with es- in French had their spelling changed to é- to match their pronunciation.
There is a counter-example of this evolution, French says spécialement when English can use especially.
1 Excluding school which was probably already existing in the English vocabulary as the Latin schola spread early in northern European languages (Old German scuola (now Schule), Swedish skola, Gaelic sgiol, Welsh ysgol). Ref.etymonline.