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I learned about "participe present" and "gérondif", but I am exploring some words with the -ent ending. For example the word chargement in my phone, which probably means "loading".

As I assume, if the "participe present (-ant) of a verb can be used as an adjective (or maybe it is the "gérondif", I haven't understood yet), for instance "un garçon, vivant dans cette maison", then this ending -ent is used to make a noun.

However, please explain what is the grammar behind this ending.

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    Chargement's suffix isn't -ent, it's -ment. -ment is a now unproductive suffix that makes a noun out of a verb, usually meaning the state or the action that results from the verb. "Chargement" comes from the verb charger (to load), and means both the action of loading something, or the result of loading something, i.e. a load. – Eau qui dort Dec 2 '18 at 20:40
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"-ent" is the ending of the third person plural of verbs in the present; the suffix that concerns you is "-ment"; there are in fact two such suffixes and at least one variant of one of them (-ement).

cf. TLFi:

  1. Suff. formateur de subst. masc. à partir d'un rad. verbal et parfois d'un adj. ou d'un subst.
  2. Suff. formateur de nombreux adv., à partir d'adj. le plus souvent.

Not all verbs, adjectives have a corresponding word in -ment, though.

Examples

charger/chargement, changer/changement, placer/placement,…

lent/lentement, fin/finement, long/longuement, plein/pleinement,… rapide/rapidement

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