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J'étais dans la cuisine et ma sœur étudiait la Bible dans la pièce à côté.

J'étais en cuisine à préparer ce gateau pour mes amis.

I guess both phrases mean "in the kitchen". Are they interchangeable in the meaning and can they be swapped in these two sentences without any difference?

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They are not interchangeable.

Dans la cuisine is far more frequent and just states "located in the kitchen" (physical location).

En cuisine means in (a/the/some) kitchen, usually a professional one like in a restaurant, but for a reason related to the purpose of the place (functional location).

You'll find similar nuances with:

Le train entre en gare / le train entre dans la gare.

Je suis arrivé en prison / je suis arrivé à la prison.

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