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Why isn't the indicative used after “à moins que”, if the action we are talking about has a great percentage of happening, or the imparfait, if the action is a bit far-fetched, and if they can be used what will be the difference in meaning?

I also wonder why a conjunction like although is used with the subjunctive. In a sentence like this, for example, I have no idea why there can be any uncertainty or emotions involved in order to use the subjunctive

Quoiqu'il fasse froid, ils se promènent dans la forêt.

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À moins que is introducing an hypothetical fact, so the subjunctive is used.

Quoique is introducing a real fact, but this fact is breaking the logic of the main statement.

This is called a concessive statement. Depending on what conjunction is used, concessive statement require either the subjunctive or the indicative/conditional in French.

Subjunctive (the conjunction clearly introduces a concession):

  • Bien qu'il fasse/ait fait/fît/eût fait froid,...

  • Encore qu'il fasse/... froid,...

  • Quoiqu'il fasse/... froid,...

  • Malgré le fait qu'il fasse/... froid,...

  • Sans qu'il fasse froid,...

Indicative/Conditional (the conjunction introduces a softer concession, or no concession at all for the last case, all are more observations) :

  • Alors qu'il faisait/fait/fera/ferait/aurait fait/... froid,...

  • Alors même qu'il faisait/fait/... froid,...

  • Tandis qu'il faisait/fait/... froid,...

  • Pendant qu'il faisait/fait/... froid,...

Where there is no concession but a logical cause, the indicative or conditional is expected too:

  • Puisqu'il faisait/fait/fera/ferait/... froid,...
  • Parce qu'il faisait/fait/fera/ferait/... froid,...

There is also the controversial malgré que which should require the subjunctive but which is more often followed by the indicative in relaxed colloquial spoken French:

  • Malgré qu'il fait froid,...
  • But doesn't à moins que means unless ? I mean if it means unless then it should be an if clause and the imparfait should also be used to introduce an hypothetical thought – Manar Jun 21 at 0:28
  • And in my question, I'm sorry, I just got a little confused and wrote: ....action we are talking about has a great percentage of happening, or conditional if the action is a bit far-fetched.. when I actually meant imparfait , I've just edited it. – Manar Jun 21 at 0:40

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