Word by word translation can be helpful but rarely gives a proper sentence.
Here is a rare case where English uses an article while French doesn't.
Another point, aussi, being after the noun better translates to too or as well instead of also
A better translation of "professeur elle aussi" is then:
a teacher too.
Like in English, we can reverse the order of the words that way:
elle aussi professeur: also a teacher
The pronoun elle is optional in the first form and is clarifying or emphasizing who this is about. It is not a subject pronoun but a tonic one so would translate to "her", not "she" so the the literal translation to English would be more like:
Mon père est professeur...Mon père a une sœur, Marie, ma tante, professeur elle aussi.
My father is a teacher... My father has a sister, Marie, my aunt, a teacher (her) too.
Here elle aussi is built like
- moi aussi (me too)
- toi/vous aussi (you too)
- lui aussi (him too)
- nous aussi (us too)
- eux aussi/elles aussi (them too).
I guess "my aunt, also a teacher" would be the most common way to say it in English.