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I was studying les pronoms personnels and it's written in my textbook that:

Indirect object pronouns are:

Lui, leur, me, se, nous, vous

— Which is kind of confusing because it doesn't include the "y"—

Meanwhile, direct object pronouns are:

Le, la, les

In the direct objects pronouns there's no mention of (me, te, vous, nous) so if I want to say a sentence like:

He bought you/ me/ us

How should I construct this sentence? Should I use moi/ toi/ vous instead?

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there are many pronouns and it can definitely be confusing. Here are the categories you're talking about:

  • pronoms personnels sujets: je, tu, il/elle/on, nous, vous, ils/elles
  • pronoms compléments directs: me, te, le/la, nous, vous, les
  • pronoms compléments indirects: me, te, lui, nous, vous, leur
  • pronoms y et en (other situations)
  • pronoms toniques: moi, toi, lui/elle, nous, vous, eux/elles

So to translate He bought you/ me/ us, you can say: Il t'/m'/nous a acheté-e-s -> don't forget to adjust the participe passé with the COD!

To know more about these different categories in grammar, here is an article for you: https://sweet-french-learning.com/glossaire-grammatical/

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Not sure about what your book actually says but me/te/nous/vous can be used as both direct and indirect object pronouns.

Your sentence translates then to:

Il ne peut pas m'acheter.

Same for:

Il m'a acheté, il t'a acheté, il nous a acheté

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