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I'm thinking in English: He is taller than I vs. He is taller than me. Now, in French: "Il est plus grand que je (suis)" instead of "que moi"?

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Not in that sense. In French, tonic or stress pronouns are used even with the verb être. C'est moi always, never c'est *je.

Il est plus grand que moi.

Or

Il est plus grand que je ne le suis.

Notice how you would need to complete the second sentence giving je a verb. It cannot end with que *je.

Other instances when you can use que je include comparisons between two subjects (examples from Lawless French):

J’ai plus d’idées que toi. I have more ideas than you.

Tu fais moins d’erreurs que moi.
You make fewer errors than I (do).

Elle a écrit autant de livres que son père. She’s written as many books as her father.

The second example highlights the English grammar of your thinking.

Furthermore, to give a complete answer to the frame of the question, if the verbs are different, you could also complete that sentence using que je + verb. It would not mean the same thing.

Il est plus grand que je ne pensais.

Some examples from Lawless French:

Compare two verbs

Je lis plus que je ne regarde la télé. I read more than I watch TV.

Anne chante autant qu’elle parle. Anne sings as much as she speaks.

The subject must be repeated in front of the second verb.
Ne explétif is required with plus and moins.

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    Even with the same verb, you can say "Il est plus grand que je ne le suis".
    – Necklondon
    Oct 26, 2022 at 21:58

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