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The phrase is from Balthasar de Monconys, and his travels (vol. 2), where he has just described the business side of his visit to Otto von Guericke (1663). He concludes with what I understand to be something like "We made merry, and were made terribly dear, over terrible wine and wicked beer". But I don't quite understand the syntax of it, and I'm not even sure if my translation is correct! The original phrase is from p. 234 of volume 2 of his travels, as its own paragraph:

Nous fusmes cherement, & fismes meschante chere, & mauvais vin & meschante biere.

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It looks like a TripAdvisor review :-)

Nous fusmes cherementNous fûmes chèrement 1 (traités)
    → The accommodation was expensive
& fismes meschante chereet fîmes méchante 2 chère 3
    → and we were served poor food
& mauvais vin & meschante biere.et mauvais vin, et méchante bière
    → and terrible wine and wicked beer. (You translated it well)

1. The rare expression être chèrement is also present later in the same book:

Nous y fûmes assez bien pour le manger, mail il n'y eût que deux méchants lits dans deux chambres, où il fallut boucher les fenêtres avec des nappes, et nous y fûmes chèrement.

It is also found in Voyages dans le trois royaumes d'Angleterre, d'Écosse et d'Irlande, by Pierre-Nicolas Chantreau, 1792:

Nous logeames à l'étoile (at the star); c'est l'auberge la plus voisine du château, et la mieux montée de l'endroit. Nous y fûmes très chèrement, mais nous eumes une jolie hôtesse, d'excellent lits et le meilleur pudding que l'on puisse manger en Angleterre.

and later:

Je trouvais qu'on était très chèrement traité dans cette espèce de guinguette où nous nous régalâmes plusieurs fois. John, au contraire, accoutumé à payer tout à Londres au poids de l'or, trouvait qu'on y était à bon marché.

In this last excerpt, we see that être chèrement can be a short form of être chèrement traité (lit. "To be expensively handled") and that chèrement is clearly opposed to bon marché (inexpensive).

The word chère doesn't have its usual "dear" meaning here but means "expensive(ly)", a meaning "dear" might also have (thanks @IMSoP).

2. Here méchante means "of poor quality, imperfect, meagre". These old meanings are lost in modern French where almost only "unkind" subsist.

3. The opposite is faire bonne chère, still used in modern French. Here again, the word chère doesn't have its "dear" meaning but a rarer one: "food quality". It cognates with the English "cheer". Both come from the Latin cara through the old French chiere (face, expression) .

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