I can't understand the difference between them. I know how to form it, but I don't know when to use 'en' or not. For example: 'en ayant fait' or 'ayant fait'.


1 Answer 1


ayant fait translates easily to "having done" or "who had done".

La date limite avait été rapportée, mais Pierre, ayant déjà rendu le devoir, n'en a tiré aucun profit.

en plus a participle translates most often to "by" or "while".

Il a gagné du temps en sautant son petit déjeuner, bien qu'il le regrettait plus tard.

Je fais mes devoirs et je prépare mon dîner tout en regardant le nouvel épisode de C'est mon choix.

It's hard for me to think of a situation where this would make sense in the past tense without it sounding awkward. "He saved time by having made his lunch the day before..." It could be reduced to just "by making", and likewise in French.

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