8

The apostrophe is commonly taught to come so that vowels don't come close to each other. This is not stated precisely, and you might be misunderstanding. The apostrophe is a consequence of the pronunciation. What happens in French is that in some cases, two vowel sounds can't be next to each other, so the first one is removed. The apostrophe is used to ...


4

This use of the apostrophe goes back to Old French, at a point when the final /ə/ of any word was always pronounced, unless it was followed by a vowel, in which case it was systematically elided. In this respect, this means that le (and any other word used with the apostrophe, like se, que, je, si, de, la or (at the time) ma or sa) would have had the exact ...


4

L'absence d'article est possible avec le nom d'un jour de semaine mais weekend ne correspond pas à cette définition, comprenant deux jours successifs (voire plus si prolongé). Pour distinguer les deux cas, on dira le weekend s'il s'agit des weekends en général, ce weekend pour parler du plus proche, ou alors le weekend dernier / le weekend prochain s'il y a ...


3

"Nous sommes le lundi", as is, is not used; there must be precisions added as to what "lundi" you are talking about; what you can use is "Nous sommes lundi." or "Nous sommes un lundi.", but this last one is not much in favour. ngram "Je suis né un" is essentially used for days in a nominal form. je suis né ...


3

The simple reason is that in "le" the e is not silent, whereas in "une" the e is silent e. le [lə] une [yn]


2

Dimitris answered very well questions 1 and 2. Here are some elements on question 3 (avec cinq huiles... vs. beaucoup d'huile). Actually, the difference between the two sentences — (2) «Il cuisine avec cinq huiles différentes.» vs. (3) «Le chef ajoute beaucoup d'huile.» — has nothing to do with avec, as it is a preposition and does not change anything. You ...


2

Je préfère cuisiner avec de l'huile. I prefer cooking with oil. Here de l' is a partitive article. It may be conveyed by 'some' (or 'any'). Nevertheless,'some' is often omitted. The partitive article refers to an unspecified quantity of food, liquid, or some other uncountable noun. English has no equivalent article – the partitive is usually translated by ...


2

The apostrophe's aren't simply "used", they are used for a purpose. In French, as in English, apostrophes can be used to indicate that some letters have been omitted. For instance: la école → l'école — the "a_" has been replace by the apostrophe. do not → don't — the "o_" has been replaced by the apostrophe. In the case of &...


1

The purpose of the elision between two words is to avoid a hiatus. There's no hiatus in une école since it is pronounced [yne'kɔl], the final e in une is not sounded.


1

Nothing makes the definite article compulsory in any of the sentences you give. Its use in this case belong to a sustained language register. Here's what Le bon usage (10e edition,§ 594) says: Le pronom un construit avec un complément partitif (...) peut être précédé de l'article élidé, mais le plus souvent il s'emploie sans cet article (sauf de deux choses ...


1

Like Italian (l'industria), French elides the feminine definite article final A (the A is not pronounced and replaced by an apostrophe). *La industrie → L'industrie *La âme → L'âme *La amie → L'amie *La eau → L'eau If the word starts with an H, the elision is done when the it is muet (muted, silent). Examples of H muet: L'horreur L'huile L'humeur L'...


1

En complément aux réponses précédentes, on peut aussi jeter un coup d'oeil du côté de l'analyse du Bon usage dans sa section sur le déterminant : « Possessif ou article ». En principe, on remplace le déterminant possessif par l'article défini quand le rapport d'appartenance est évident (on parle souvent aujourd'hui d'appartenance inaliénable), notamment ...


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