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49

This is a huge question. If someone has the time to give a more thorough overview, I invite them to, but here's a quick set of points to consider. Most of these end consonants are no mystery: they come directly from Latin (temps < tempus, pas < passum, roux < rossus, etc.). In Latin, there are regular rules for word stress, and they are rarely on ...


28

I think both pronunciations (with liaison and without liaison) are common. Personally I use both. With the liaison, the meaning is usually “Ce moment n'est pas encore arrivé”, that is “Not yet”. But I guess the usage varies, and the liaison could be omitted. However when encore is distinctively stressed (Pas Encore !), the liaison is necessarily omitted… ...


22

When tous is a pronoun you pronounce the s : Ils sont tous /tus/ là. À boire pour tous /tus/ ! When it is an adjective you don't pronounce the s : Je me lève à six heures tous /tu/ les jours. « Il m'a demandé une liste de tous /tu/ les participants. — Tous /tu/ les participants ? — Oui, tous /tus/. » Le s se prononce quand tous est employé comme ...


21

La règle : Quand le déterminant possessif ma, ta et sa se trouve devant un mot féminin qui commence par un son voyelle, on emploie mon, ton et son. Ceci pour éviter d'avoir à prononcer deux voyelles à la suite. Ton expérience. Mon idée. Son enfance. Mots commençant par la lettre h : Quand le h est muet, c'est le son suivant qui est pris en compte : ...


20

There is no single "liaison rule" in French but a gazillion of small scope "liaison rules" each one often with exceptions. Here is what the TLFI says about "z" liaisons: c) Liaison. Cf. Kamm. 1964, p. 238 : ,,La lettre [z] peut se lier (devant voyelle). En réalité, elle se trouve rarement en situation d'être liée. On ne voit vraiment que les deux ...


20

Diacritics are part of French orthography. To take one example, "dû" is the past participle of "devoir". If you remove the circumflex, it becomes "du", the contraction of "de" + "le". Different diacritics denote different things. The circumflex over an vowel often marks where an "s" used to follow the vowel. So modern French "êtes" is "estes" in old French. ...


20

In addition to Luke's answer, here are some comments about each of your examples: Temps was often written tems, tens or even tans in Old French. When French spelling was standardized, the variant including p, despite being already silent, was selected because it reminds the p that was present in Latin. The ending s was pronounced at that time. Unlike ...


19

As a rule of thumb, you could pronounce (but not obligatorily) the liaison when meaning "not yet" : Il n'est pas [z] encore arrivé : he has not arrived yet Je n'ai pas [z] encore fini : I'm not done yet In these cases, the use of the liaison might sound a bit posher than without, but that quite depends on the tone too. However, you should not ...


19

The man actually pronounces the second t. Even though it is not as clear as the sounds from the beginning of the word, I distinctly hear it. If you play the video at half-speed, you can hear it being merged with the z sound of the s liaison, PETI-tZanimations. In standard French, the t in that phrase is not silent.


18

It makes sense from a Chinese teacher. The pinyin t is stronger than the French t. But the pinyin d is somewhere between the French t and French d. I often hear the Chinese render the French t too softly. The difference between French t and d is less in the mouth than in the throat. The d sound makes use of the vocal folds, whilst the t sound does not. ...


18

Cette situation s'explique en effet par l'origine de second, qui est une dérivation du latin secundus. Le cas de second et de ses dérivés est assez intéressant en ce qu'il ne suit pas la règle habituelle pour les occlusives palato-vélaires ([k] et [g]) à l'intervocalique (entre deux voyelles) et précédant [o] ou [u]. L'évolution normale, décrite par le ...


16

Cette graphie est due à la nasalisation, puis dénasalisation de la voyelle placée devant la consonne nasale [m]. Ce phénomène a touché toutes les voyelles placées devant des consonnes nasales. L'explication la plus simple que j'ai trouvée est ici : Les consonnes nasales doubles nn et mm sont des graphies historiques ; elles correspondent à une ...


16

For reference, the usual diacritics are as follows. Accent aigu: é Pronunciation: Uniformly causes the vowel to be pronounced [e] (as in English "may"). There are some rare exceptions where it's pronounced [ɛ] (as in English "beg") instead, such as événement (recommended spelling changed to évènement in 1990) and in inversions like aimé-je. Usage: Most ...


15

French pronunciation is more regular than English, even if the rules are complicated and do have exceptions. So natives and learners need pronunciation information less often than they do with English. Nonetheless most dictionaries do include phonetic transcriptions, so I'm a little puzzled why you feel a lack of those. (What doesn't exist for French is a ...


15

In France the pronunciation is exactly the same : [sa]. But the context will always give you a hint about which one is used. En France, la prononciation est exactement la même : [sa]. C'est le contexte qui permettra de déterminer lequel des deux est utilisé.


14

Unless it's spelled Beauxhommès, I would intuitively not pronounce the final -s. However, note that there's no pronounciation rule for last names. Also, unlike English, if the original name doesn't have a final -s, putting one when referring to the family is not correct. The family of Dominique Dupont is Les Dupont, not Les Duponts, whereas Homer Simpson's ...


14

Il y a quelques règles générales, mais beaucoup d'exceptions, surtout parmi les mots les plus courants. En première approximation, on prononce en finale seulement les voyelles autre que e, et les consonnes f, l, r (sauf -er). Avec un peu plus de détails : -e : e muet. En français « par défaut », il ne se prononce pas, mais fait que les lettres précédentes ...


14

Il y a deux facteurs qui entrent en jeu pour définir la vitesse d'une langue. La vitesse avec laquelle les syllabes sont énoncées influence la perception qu'on peut avoir de la vitesse de cette langue. Ce facteur est déterminant lorsqu'on ne comprend pas ce qui est dit. Plus les syllabes s'égrènent vite, plus les locuteurs semblent parler rapidement. Ce ...


14

Look up "phrase-final vowel devoicing" for scientific articles on the subject. It's a relatively recent phenomenon in European French, whereby the vocal folds stop vibrating halfway through a vowel at the end of an utterance. Since the tongue is still articulating the vowel and air continues streaming out of the mouth, this produce a fricative. As you've ...


14

The widespread pronunciation is [pano] with no nasalisation. You might hear [panɔ] in eastern France, but this is unrelated to your question. A non native speaker might hear a slight kind of nasalization at the end of the vowel a due to the transition to a nasal consonant. This is probably what you experienced but native French ears cannot hear it, or at ...


14

It seems that the reason for this unique pronunciation would be the ancient form of the word "sens"; this is suggested by the Wiktionnaire; « sens » dans cette locution vient de « c’en » et il est prononcé \sɑ̃\, d’où une fréquente confusion avec « sans ». This is confirmed by the etymology in the TLFi ; Les loc. adv. sous B (sens dessus dessous,...


13

L'exemple donné soulève deux questions : La liaison après chez : elle est obligatoire* : La liaison est aussi obligatoire entre une préposition ne comportant qu’une syllabe et le mot qui suit. Exemple : Elles rentrent chez elles [ʃezɛl] / elle rentre chez elle [ʃezɛl]. La liaison avec les noms propres : certains la jugent interdite mais de fait ...


13

Il n'y a pas de règle absolue, c'est souvent l'usage qui dicte la prononciation des mots étrangers, comme celle des mots français d'ailleurs... Les mots comme python, Apache, Oracle, Android (androïde), Ruby (rubis), interface, etc. qui existent déjà en français ou qui ont une structure familière garderont une prononciation française. Certains mots comme ...


13

In both the video and Google Translate's pronunciation, I think I understand what you're hearing. It seems to be an implicit glide between the /ɑ̃/ and the /ɛ/ simply as a function of the first being further back: /ɑ/ is open back, whereas /ɛ/ is open-mid front. If a speaker is not very careful to articulate each sound distinctly (as is normal in spoken ...


13

No, standard French does not have the vowel /ɪ/ (near-close front unrounded vowel), which is the English “short i”. The vowel which is normally written with the letter I in French is a close front unrounded vowel, API symbol /i/. Its realization [i] is fairly stable across French speakers, at least in Europe.¹ Some Canadian speakers do pronounce [ɪ] in ...


13

Depending on the dialect of the speaker, schwa might be realised as [əʷ], [œ] or [ø]. Whatever this realisation might be, it's still its own phoneme, since it has a very different behaviour from /ø/: /ø/ can appear in both open and closed syllables for most speakers, while speakers who realise /ə/ as [ø] in open syllables (as your speaker did for monsieur) ...


12

Nous savons tous means "We all know" and you pronounce the final "s". Nous savons tout means "We know everything" and you do not pronounce the final "t".


12

La prononciation de vingt tout seul varie suivant les régions. On prononce le t (donc [vɛ̃t]) systématiquement en Lorraine et dans d'autres régions du nord et de l'est de la France (mais pas en Alsace) et en Belgique (et en Suisse, je crois). On ne prononce pas le t (donc [vɛ̃]) ailleurs. Il y a une exception : dans les nombres composés (vingt-deux, vingt-...


12

It is always correct not to elide the word preceding both cardinals and ordinals in French so you can take it as a rule without risk. Le un et le deux sont sortis au loto, à la une du journal, le huit de cœur, le train de onze heures; c'est le huitième jour, la onzième de la classe, pour la énième fois. Elided form might sometimes be observed but only to ...


12

Phonetically speaking, you can't tell the difference between them; they are pronounced the same. And yes, it goes for all the other verbs where the third person singular is pronounced the same as the third person plural, except in cases where the verb starts with a vowel. In those cases, there is often a liaison made when it's plural. For example, ils ...


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