I think the notion, in English, of getting and giving an [attitude] adjustment comes from giving (performing/doing) and getting (having [it] performed/having [it] done/submitting to) a chiropractic adjustment, which leads me to the verbs ‘faire’ or even ‘effectuer’ for the “giving” side of a chiropractic adjustment in French.
As you point out, a literal translation (ajustement d'attitude) would conflict with some pre-existing meanings in other domains. I feel, however, that the word “attitude” is important enough in fully capturing this notion to justify keeping it, and the best way, I think, to accomplish this is by replacing “ajustement” with “changement” and using the verb “effectuer” with it:
Ma chère, vous avez besoin d’un changement d’attitude [et] il/cela me
fera plaisir de l’effectuer.
To the extent that “changement d’attitude” might still have meanings in the domains you mentioned (as well as in the domain of sociology), I’d suggest using the following verbal construction to translate “attitude adjustment”: “[devoir/falloir/avoir besoin de] changer d’attitude” and although I think “effectuer” works well with “changement, with this verbal version I’d use instead the verb “s’occuper”:
Ma chère, vous avez besoin de (vous devez/il faut) changer
[et] il/cela me fera plaisir de m’en occuper.
(The only way that I see to use the notion of “give”/ “donner” in this exchange (regardless of how you end up translating “attitude adjustment” would require adding a final bit of extra facetiousness with a noun that goes with “donner”: Ma chère, vous avez besoin d’une leçon sur …/d’un cadeau d[e]… [’un changement d’attitude] et il/cela me fera plaisir de vous la/le donner.)